|Goro Matsumiya1,2||Takaaki Suzuki1,3||Hitoshi Yokoyama1,4|
（Medical Safety Management Committee, Japanese Society for Cardiovascular Surgery1, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine2, Chiba, Japan, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center3, Saitama, Japan, and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fukushima Medical University4, Fukushima, Japan）
A recent fatal accident related to the use of the pulmonary artery catheter（PAC）promoted us to conduct a questionnaire survey to assess the current use of the PAC and its complications during cardiac surgery. Methods:A 10-item questionnaire was distributed to all board-certified cardiovascular surgery centers in Japan. Five hundred thirty-two questionnaires were distributed and 325（61.1%）were returned. Results:Seventy-two percents of hospitals used the PAC in more than 90% of cases, while only 17% used it less than 50% of the time. Indication of its use was not clearly determined in 52% of hospitals. Entrapment of the PAC was experienced in 28% of centers in the last 10 years, and its incidence was calculated as 0.07%. At a quarter of hospitals, checking for PAC to confirm absence of entrapment was not performed during the operation. Pulmonary artery rupture occurred at 22% of hospitals, and its incidence was 0.05%. Agreements on handling PAC to prevent cardiac injury or pulmonary artery rupture were not made in 24 and 56% of hospitals respectively. Conclusion:These data demonstrate that in many of the cardiac surgery centers in Japan, the PAC is still routinely used. Serious complications including catheter entrapment and pulmonary artery injury were encountered in a substantial number of patients. Development of guidelines for PAC during cardiac surgery to limit its use to patients with clear benefits and prevent related complications is warranted.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:1-7（2021）
Keywords：pulmonary artery catheter;cardiac surgery;catheter entrapment;pulmonary artery rupture
|Fumiaki Murayama＊||Koji Nomura＊||Yoshihiro Ko＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery＊, Saitama Children’s Medical Center, Saitama, Japan）
A male infant was diagnosed with aorto-left ventricular tunnel（ALVT）because of advanced left ventricular hypertrophy and massive reflux from the aorta to the left ventricle during the fetal period. Aorto-left ventricular tunnel closure was emergently performed 2h after birth in cooperation with the hospital where he was born. The aortic end of the ALVT was located above the right-left coronary commissure, and the measured diameter was 8mm. The aortic valve was tricuspid, but it was thickened and the opening was limited;it was further complicated by a right coronary artery anomaly. Taking the valve distortion and surgical invasion into consideration, only the aortic end was closed using an autologous pericardial patch. Although mild aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation remained after surgery, the postoperative course was uneventful, and the left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac function were improved.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:15-18（2021）
Keywords：aorto-left ventricular tunnel;neonate;prenatal diagnosis;coronary artery anomaly
|Mika Noda＊||Hajime Sakurai＊＊||Toshimichi Nonaka＊＊|
|Takahisa Sakurai＊＊||Motoshi Kosakai＊＊||Yu Murakami＊＊|
|Mayumi Kamada＊＊||Takuya Nakayama＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Nagoya-Kyoritsu Hospital＊, Nagoya, Japan, and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Chukyo Children Heart Center, Japan Community Healthcare Organization Chukyo Hospital＊＊, Nagoya, Japan）
A 2-month-old male infant was transferred to our hospital for suspected cardiomyopathy because he had livedo reticularis and peripheral coldness. An electrocardiogram showed ischemic change and an echocardiogram showed a dilated, poorly functioning left ventricle. Therefore, we performed urgent cardiac catheterization. The coronary artery was not visualized by aortography, but the single coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery was depicted by pulmonary angiography. Therefore, we performed emergent surgery. The whole coronary arteries traveled directly inferiorly from the left side of the pulmonary trunk. A patent ductus arteriosus（PDA）was closed at the operation. We established cardiopulmonary bypass using two arterial cannulae through both ascending aortas and pulmonary trunk to maintain coronary blood flow. Direct implantation is difficult because the coronary ostium is far from the ascending aorta. Therefore, we chose to perform the Takeuchi procedure using an intrapulmonary artery tunnel. The patient’s postoperative course was good, and he was discharged on postoperative day 22. A case of an anomalous origin of a single coronary artery from the pulmonary artery without any other heart disease is extremely rare. Management of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection in this abnormality is discussed.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:19-22（2021）
Keywords：congenital anomalies of the coronary artery;anomalous origin of the single coronary artery from the pulmonary artery（ASCAPA）;Takeuchi procedure
|Masaru Kumae＊||Ryosuke Kowatari＊||Yuuki Imamura＊|
|Kazuyuki Daitoku＊||Masahito Minakawa＊||Ikuo Fukuda＊|
（Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine＊, Hirosaki, Japan）
We present a 70-year-old woman who underwent a classic Blalock-Taussig shunt for tetralogy of Fallot（TOF), followed by intra-cardiac repair at the age of 25 years. She developed heart failure due to aortic regurgitation with aortic root dilatation and pulmonary regurgitation 45 years after the surgery. She was successfully treated with concomitant biventricular outflow tract reconstruction（aortic valve, ascending aorta, and pulmonary valve replacement). The treatment strategy for aortic regurgitation with aortic root dilatation after TOF repair is unclear. With a transient increase in the number of elderly patients who have undergone the classic Blalock-Taussig shunt as palliative surgery, the number of complex cases of both right and left ventricular outlet tract involvement will also increase. With patients’ advanced age and situation of complex reoperation taken into consideration, aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement may be useful options for cases of aortic regurgitation and aortic root dilatation.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:23-26（2021）
Keywords：tetralogy of Fallot;aortic dilatation;aortic valve replacement;ascending aorta replacement;pulmonary valve replacement
|Kazufumi Yoshida＊||Masanosuke Ishigami＊||Tadaaki Koyama＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital＊, Kobe, Japan）
We report a case of re-repair mitral valve replacement（MVR）for paravalvular leaks that were unsuitable for catheter treatment. Three years ago, a 67-year-old woman, who had undergone MVR for rheumatic mitral valve replacement at the age of 33 years and undergone re-MVR at the age of 47 years, was admitted with hemolytic anemia. We performed paravalvular leak（PVL）repair directly with 5-0 polypropylene sutures because of calcifications in the annulus. Three years after the operation, she presented with dyspnea on exertion, and transthoracic echocardiography revealed several paravalvular leaks. We consulted with cardiologists in our and other institutions, and these leaks were determined to be unsuitable for catheter treatment. We removed the artificial valve, and found the calcifications and residual cuffs from the first or second artificial valves. These residual cuffs were removed with Cusa●R and Harmonic Synergy●R. We performed re-repair MVR without reconstruction of the annulus. She was discharged on postoperative day 39 with no complications and did not experience any recurrence of PVL for 2 years. Residual cuffs from the artificial valve may cause PVLs, and Cusa●R and Harmonic Synergy●R are useful for removing residual cuffs and calcifications.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:27-30（2021）
Keywords：catheter treatment;paravalvular leaks;mitral valve replacement
|Tomonori Ochiai＊||Tetsuro Uchida＊||Yoshinori Kuroda＊|
|Atsushi Yamashita＊||Eiichi Ohba＊||Shingo Nakai＊|
|Kimihiro Kobayashi＊||Mitsuaki Sadahiro＊|
（Second Department of Surgery, Yamagata University Hospital＊, Yamagata, Japan）
A 60-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve annuloplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Postoperative echocardiography revealed shunted flow from the noncoronary sinus of Valsalva into the left atrium. The pathogenesis of this complication is considered to be uncertain;however, it might be due to some kind of intraoperative injury. Three weeks after the initial surgery, we reoperated to repair the aorto-left atrial fistula. According to the intraoperative findings, small slits were found on the left atrial surface close to the posteromedial side of the mitral valve and the noncoronary sinus of Valsalva. The fistula was closed with transmural mattress sutures. Post-operative echocardiography showed no shunt flow. Although an aorto-left atrial fistula is a rare complication after aortic valve replacement, reoperation might be mandatory if the shunt flow is considerable. Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of intraoperative injury to surrounding structures when performing aortic valve replacement.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:31-33（2021）
Keywords：aortic valve replacement;sinus of Valsalva-left atrium fistul
|Shuntaro Ito＊||Kenji Mogi＊||Manabu Sakurai＊|
|Kengo Tani＊||Masafumi Hashimoto＊||Yoshiharu Takahara＊|
（Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Funabashi Municipal Medical Center Heart and Vascular Institute＊, Funabashi, Japan）
We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with a history of radiation therapy for breast cancer 27 years ago who developed malignant pericardial mesothelioma. Since 3 years ago, the recurrent bloody pericardial effusion was getting worse, which caused general edema and nocturnal dyspnea. She had a thickened pericardium and the right ventricular pressure curve showed a dip-and-plateau pattern. We diagnosed constrictive pericarditis and performed a pericardiectomy and waffle procedure on the thickened epicardium without cardiopulmonary bypass. The post-operative histology confirmed malignant pericardial mesothelioma and she died on the 17th postoperative day. Pericardial malignant mesothelioma is a rare disorder but very aggressive. This fatal disease may be considered in a patient with recurrent bloody pericardial effusion who has a history of thoracic radiation therapy.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:34-37（2021）
Keywords：malignant pericardial mesothelioma;post-irradiation;constrictive pericarditis
|Satoshi Sakakibara＊||Takashi Yamauchi＊||Hitoshi Suhara＊|
|Tsubasa Mikami＊||Takafumi Masai＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Sakurabashi Watanabe Hospital＊, Osaka, Japan）
We herein report a rare case of unruptured, giant left coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm and discuss surgical pitfalls associated with sinus of Valsalva aneurysms. A 63-year-old man was referred to us for clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment of a huge mass in the mediastinum. Enhanced computed tomography（CT）imaging revealed that the mass was a left coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm with a diameter of 74×57 mm;moreover, the left coronary artery originated from the aneurysmal wall. In addition, echocardiography showed moderate aortic regurgitation（AR）caused by dilatation of the aortic annulus. Based on these findings, the Bentall procedure was selected for the Valsalva aneurysm and significant AR. The orifice of the aneurysm was 15×15mm in size, and the aortic wall of the left coronary sinus was relatively thin. The left main trunk was injured due to severe adhesion between the trunk and the aneurysm;therefore, vein patch repair was performed with a saphenous vein graft. Since the aortic annulus of the left coronary cusp was fragile, proximal anastomosis of the composite graft to the lesion had to be placed in the fibrous continuity between the aortic and mitral valves. With respect to the proximal anastomosis at the aortic annulus of the left coronary cusp, the suture line was covered with a bovine pericardium patch as there were no remnants of the normal aortic wall. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative CT revealed complete resection of the aneurysm with no evidence of stenosis of the left main trunk.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:38-43（2021）
Keywords：left coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm;bicuspid aortic valve;aortic regurgitation;aortic root replacement;vein patch coronary angioplasty
|Toshitaka Watanabe＊||Nobuyuki Yoshitani＊||Ryo Tohma＊|
|Takuya Misato＊||Kazuma Okamoto＊||Taro Hayashi＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Akashi Medical Center＊, Akashi, Japan）
In aortic surgery involving shaggy aorta, surgical strategy to avoid embolism is crucial for each case. We applied the frozen elephant trunk technique to a patient with shaggy aorta. A 79-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for conservative treatment of acute Type B aortic dissection. Dissecting aneurysms of the aortic arch and descending aorta were shown to have rapidly dilated according to CT three weeks later. Preoperative contrast CT showed an ulcerated shaggy aorta from the aortic arch to the mid portion of the descending aorta. To utilize the benefit of the stent compared with the classical elephant trunk technique, we proposed that the frozen elephant trunk technique would be helpful in prevention of embolism. We therefore planned total arch replacement with the frozen elephant trunk technique and performed thoracic endovascular aortic repair. We employed the frozen elephant trunk technique in the first operation and balloon protection of the superior mesenteric artery and the renal artery in the second operation. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course without thromboembolism. The frozen elephant trunk technique may be helpful for patients with shaggy aorta to avoid thromboembolic events.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:44-48（2021）
Keywords：frozen elephant trunk;thoracic endovascular aortic repair（TEVAR）;shaggy aorta;total arch replacement;Type B aortic dissection
|Kenji Yoshida＊||Yukio Kioka＊||Daichi Edaki＊|
|Koki Eto＊||Mitsuhito Kuriyama＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fukuyama City Hospital＊, Fukuyama, Japan）
A 75-year-old man with a heart murmur and fatigability was referred to our hospital. We diagnosed unruptured giant right sinus of Valsalva aneurysm that obstructed the right ventricular outflow tract by echocardiography（UCG), computed tomography（CT）and magnetic resonance imaging（MRI). The right ventricle was dilated and its ejection fraction was decreased to 9.3% by MRI. Successful surgical repair involved the right sinus of Valsalva plasty using a bovine pericardial patch and resection of the aneurysm through only a right ventricular outflow incision. His postoperative course was uneventful.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:49-52（2021）
Keywords：sinus of Valsalva aneurysm;right ventricular outflow tract;surgery
|Shinnosuke Goto＊||Masanao Nakai＊||Shinji Kawaguchi＊|
|Yuta Miyano＊||Muneaki Yamada＊||Yasuhiko Terai＊|
|Ryota Nomura＊||Hiroshi Mitsuoka＊||Fumio Yamasaki＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shizuoka City Shizuoka Hospital＊, Shizuoka, Japan）
A 79-year-old woman presented to our hospital with high energy trauma. Enhanced CT revealed injury to the aortic arch. The left carotid artery was pulled out due to extension force and a drawing out lesion formed. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established with cannulation of the right femoral artery and the right atrium, and systemic cooling was started. We opened the aortic arch with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and detected a 10mm drawing out lesion at the bottom of the left carotid artery. Aortic arch was transected at the distal of the left carotid artery to exclude the drawing out lesion, and partial arch replacement was performed. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged from our hospital without any complication.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:53-56（2021）
Keywords：aortic arch;partial aortic arch replacement, trauma
|Shinji Kawaguchi＊||Yuta Miyano＊||Shinnosuke Goto＊|
|Yasuhiko Terai＊||Ryota Nomura＊||Masanao Nakai＊|
|Hiroshi Mitsuoka＊||Fumio Yamazaki＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shizuoka City Hospital＊, Shizuoka, Japan）
A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital with pain and coldness of the upper left extremity. Contrasted computed tomography revealed a silhouette protruding into the aortic arch. Peripheral embolism in upper left extremity by tumor or thrombosis was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mobile mass in the aortic arch. To prevent recurrent embolization, the mass and the aortic arch to which the mass was attached were excised and partial arch replacement was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Histologically, the mass was a fibrin thrombus with no malignancy. The aortic wall showed only mild atherosclerosis of the intima. No thrombotic predisposition such as protein S or C deficiency or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome was observed. Anticoagulant therapy was started and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10 without recurrent thromboembolism. Three years have passed since the operation and there is no recurrence of thromboembolism.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:57-60（2021）
Keywords：aorta thrombus;thrombectomy;anticoagulant therapy
|Takeshi Murakami1||Takashi Miura1||Hisao Sano2|
|Taku Inoue1||Mizuki Sumi3||Ichiro Matsumaru1|
|Seiji Matsukuma4||Kazuyoshi Tanigawa5||Kiyoyuki Eishi1|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery1, and Department of Pathology2, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hakujuji Hospital3, Fukuoka, Japan, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Hospital Organization, Nagasaki Medical Center4, Nagasaki, Japan, and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, St. Mariana University School of Medicine, Yokohama Seibu Hospital5, Yokohama, Japan）
A 24-year-old man was admitted to another hospital due to fever and chest and back pain. Enhanced chest computed tomography showed an aneurysm between the distal aortic arch and left pulmonary artery. The patient was transferred to our hospital for surgery. Because of suspicion of an infectious ductus arteriosus aneurysm, antibiotic therapy was started. Urgent graft replacement of the descending aorta was performed on the third day due to the enlargement of the aneurysm. All blood cultures including the preoperative examination, and the aneurysmal culture were negative. The histopathological study showed non-specific inflammatory response with plasma cell, T lymphocyte, and B lymphocyte infiltrations. There was no evidence of infection. Eventually we diagnosed this patient as having a ductus arteriosus aneurysm with non-specific inflammation. The antibiotic therapy was terminated on postoperative day 10, and the postoperative course was uneventful.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:61-64（2021）
Keywords：adult ductus arteriosus aneurysm;suspicion of infectious aortic aneurysm;non-specific inflammatory response
|Shuntaro Ito＊||Kenji Mogi＊||Manabu Sakurai＊|
|Kengo Tani＊||Masafumi Hashimoto＊||Yoshiharu Takahara＊|
（Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Funabashi Municipal Medical Center Heart and Vascular Institute＊, Funabashi, Japan）
We report the case of a 55-year-old man who received a hard blow to his chest from a liquid nitrogen hose that caused traumatic aortic dissection（Stanford type A, DeBakey type II). He did not have any other hemorrhagic injury;therefore, we decided to perform an emergency surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on postoperative day 19. Pathological findings were compatible with traumatic aortic dissection. Blunt thoracic aortic injury is a potentially life-threatening injury;therefore, it is worth remembering that relatively low-energy blunt trauma can cause aortic injury in patients with severe atherosclerosis. The optimal timing of intervention should be individualized in traumatic aortic injury with consideration of associated injuries.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:65-68（2021）
Keywords：blunt thoracic aortic injury;traumatic aortic dissection;Stanford type A
|Kouki Nakashima＊||Yosuke Hari＊||Hisato Takagi＊|
|Tadashi Kitamura＊＊||Kagami Miyaji＊＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shizuoka Medical Center＊, Sunuto-gun, Shizuoka, Japan, and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine＊＊, Sagamihara, Japan）
Leg malperfusion accompanied with type B acute aortic dissection（AAD）is reported to be an independent predictor for mortality. In such a case, though aortic replacement, extra anatomical arterial bypass or endovascular aortic repair（EVAR）can be selected, an appropriate treatment strategy has not been established yet. A 53-year-old woman was urgently hospitalized with sudden low back pain and right leg weakness, despite the right popliteal and anterior tibial arteries being palpable. Computed tomography（CT）revealed a type B AAD, and antihypertensive therapy was initiated. She complained of intermittent claudication during rehabilitation, and right leg ischemia with decreased ankle brachial pressure index（ABPI）was detected. The follow-up CT revealed the narrow true lumen of the right common iliac artery compressed by the thrombosed false lumen and the large entry of the aortic dissection in the terminal aorta. At the subacute phase of the aortic dissection, EVAR was performed. To expand the true lumen and exclude the entry, Y-shaped stent-grafts were implanted in the infra-renal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries. The postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative ABPI returned to the normal range, and the intermittent claudication disappeared. In conclusion, EVAR should be considered in patients with type B AAD complicated with leg malperfusion.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:69-72（2021）
Keywords：type B acute aortic dissection;leg malperfusion;endovascular aortic repair（EVAR）
|Ryota Murase＊||Ryosuke Numaguchi||Takamitsu Tatsukawa|
|Satoshi Sugimoto||Akihito Ookawa||Ayaka Arihara|
|Hiroki Uchiyama||Naohiro Wakabayashi||Haruki Niwano|
（Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Hokkaido University Hospital＊, Sapporo, Japan）
The Japanese board of cardiovascular surgery has changed the requirements for the certification of cardiovascular surgeons. The requirements include Off the Job Training and the training of extracorporeal circulation. The role of training facilities should be changed because of its duty. We showed a questionnaire survey about the new requirements for young cardiovascular surgeons in Hokkaido. We hope this article shows what is required for the training facilities in the new era.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50（1）:U1-U6（2021）
Keywords：board-certified cardiovascular surgeon;U40;questionnaire survey
Systemic-pulmonary shunt for neonate and small infant with decreased pulmonary blood flow is an important first palliative surgery as simple palliation or complex palliative open-heart surgery to affect the completeness of subsequent radical or second surgery. It is important to understand the hemodynamics according to each disease and determine the shunt design considering the “shape” and “flow rate” of the shunt. In recent years, Blalock-Taussig shunt（BT shunt）and central shunt through median sternotomy have become mainstream, however conventional BT shunt through lateral thoracotomy is still an important basic procedure which pediatric cardiac surgeons should learn. Pulmonary artery banding（PAB）or bilateral PAB is also an important palliative procedure to protect the right and left pulmonary vascular beds equally for pulmonary high-flow complex heart disease and functional single ventricle. It is essential to perform secure PAB or bilateral PAB, which leads to the next procedure smoothly.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:1. xviii-xxv（2021）
Keywords：systemic-pulmonary shunt;pulmonary artery banding;lateral thoracotomy;median sternotomy
Off-pump coronary artery bypass grating（OPCAB）is a standard procedure in Japan. This widespread use of OPCAB in Japan is supported by a number of studies that have been performed in the Japanese population, although most of these studies are retrospective single-institutions. Several clinical trials have been conducted worldwide and have demonstrated no benefit of OPCAB over traditional CABG with respect to these outcomes. Ultimately, OPCAB is associated with less effective myocardial revascularization and does not entirely prevent complications traditionally associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Even so, OPCAB may improve operative outcomes by reducing the rates of perioperative myocardial injury, stroke, neurocognitive impairment, and cardiac-related mortality for elderly high-risk patients with co-morbidities. We will continue to polish this effective procedure in an aging society.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:1. xxvi-xxix（2021）
Keywords：coronary artery bypass grafting;off-pump;on-pump
|Taira Yamamoto＊||Daisuke Endo＊||Satoshi Matsushita＊|
|Akie Shimada＊||Atsumi Ohishi＊||Shizuyuki Dohi＊|
|Tohru Asai＊||Atsushi Amano＊|
The left atrium and left atrial appendage have unique genetic anatomical and physiological features. Recently, advances in diagnostic imaging technology have provided much new knowledge. Clinically, the risk of developing atrial fibrillation increases with age. In order to reduce the public health burden such as cerebral infarction caused by atrial fibrillation, we need to find some predictive risk factors and preventive strategies for cerebral infarction and more effective treatments. The new concept of atrial myopathy has emerged, and animal models and human studies have revealed close interactions between atrial myopathy, atrial fibrillation, and stroke through various mechanisms. Structural and electrical remodeling such as fibrosis and deterioration of the balance of autonomic nerves and complicated interactions between these mechanisms lead to deterioration of atrial fibrillation and a continuous vicious cycle, and finally thrombosis in the left atrial appendage. Although anticoagulant therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation is strongly recommended, it is difficult for many patients to continue optimal treatment. In the nearly future, it will be important to understand the anatomy and physiology of the left atrial appendage and to understand the shape changes, size and the changes of autonomic function, and thrombus formation conditions associated with LAA remodeling during atrial fibrillation, and then we should provide early therapeutic intervention.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:1. xxxvi-xlviii（2021）
Keywords：atrial fibrillation;stroke;left atrial appendage;cost-effectiveness
Ventricular septal rupture（VSR）has been a lethal complication after acute myocardial infarction. It occurs mostly within one week following onset of myocardial infarction. Medical managements and percutaneous defect closure are still of limited value. Surgical closure of VSR has been developed since the first report in 1957, however the recent STS database reported high surgical mortality of 54.2% in cases within 7 days following onset of myocardial infarction. Posterior VSR has been reported worse surgical mortality than anterior VSR. A novel procedure, the extended sandwich patch（ESP）method via the right ventricle（RV）incision was proposed and developed for overcoming these weaknesses. ESP method starts with the incision close to the culprit artery and the left ventricle（LV）is reached through the defect. After sufficient debridement of the necrotic myocardium, an octagonal fabric patch sized 6 centimeter is introduced into the LV. About eight transmural anchoring sutures are placed inside-out. The second fabric patch is placed on the RV septum and felt pledgetts on the free wall of LV. Before the final closure of the ESP, glue is placed into the defect. The RV incision is then simply closed. Low mortality and least the shunt recurrence were reported by our group. This life-saving procedure seems promising to employ for VSR closure even in cases within 7 days following onset of myocardial infarction or in the posterior type. To improve clinical outcomes of VSR, it is crucial to perform VSR closure with the secure method prior to developing multi-organ failure due to the deteriorating heart failure.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:1. i-viii（2021）
Keywords：acute myocardial infarction;ventricular septal perforation;ventricular septal rupture; cardiogenic shock;acute myocardial infarction complication
Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement（MIAVR）through right antero-lateral thoracotomy（ALT）has several advantages over traditional anterior chest approaches（right anterior thoracotomy, or partial sternotomy). First, ALT is less affected by anatomical variation of the position of the ascending aorta, second, concomitant mitral valve surgery is possible, and third, outcome in cosmesis is better. MIAVR can be done under direct vision and endoscopic assist. Longitudinal axillary incision and thoracotomy through the third inter-costal space is appropriate to directly look down the aortic valve. Endoscopic assist and tying down the sutures using a knot-pusher are mandatory. MIAVR can also be done totally endoscopically. Three dimensional endoscope and independent working ports for the right and left hand are helpful. Appropriate working space for the endoscopic surgery is obtained by antero-lateral approach. Standard valve can be used in endoscopic AVR, without using fastener devices.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 50:1. ix-xiv（2021）
Keywords：minimally invasive cardiac surgery;aortic valve replacement