|Limited Incision through a Retroperitoneal Approach in Abdominal Aortic Surgery|
|To reduce surgical invasion, we
recently used a limited incision through a retroperitoneal approach
in the abdominal aortic surgery. Between May 2001 and March 2002,
18 patients who had infrarenal aortic aneurysm, iliac aneurysm,
or aortoiliac occlusive disease were surgically treated using
a new approach at Dokkyo University Koshigaya Hospital. Although
1 patient with a short aortic neck had to be converted to conventional
surgical incision, the remaining 17 patients were successfully
treated with the limited incision (range, 6 -10cm). Operative
time and intraoperative blood loss were 275.2±62.9 min and 968.5±473.8
ml, respectively. None of these patients required homologous
blood transfusion in the perioperative period. All patients were
extubated in the operation room. Oral feeding and mobilization
started on day 1.6±0.5 and 1.4±0.9, respectively. Furthermore,
all patients were discharged home without serious complications
such as postoperative ileus and perioperative death. These results
show that the limited incision through a retroperitoneal approach
is safe and effective in the abdominal aortic surgery. This technique
maintains quality outcome while reducing surgical invasion.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 325 -328 (2003)
|Comparison of the Impact of Skeletonization and Semi-Skeletonization by Harmonic Scalpel on the Left Internal Thoracic Artery Graft Flow|
|Intraoperative graft flow, measured
by a BF1001 CardioMed Flowmeter and the postoperative graft diameter
of the left internal thoracic artery, measured by coronary angiogram
were compared in the semi-skeletonization method group (23 patients)
and the skeletonization method group (29 patients). There was
no significant difference between 2 groups in terms of age, gender,
body surface area, diabetes mellitus, LAD lesion, preoperative
ejection fraction, operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass time
and aortic cross-clamp time. Graft flow was significantly larger
in the skeletonization method group than in the semi-skeletonization
method group (50.4±21.7ml/min vs 36.9±12.8ml/min, p=0.019).
However graft diameter did not differ significantly between the
2 methods (2.46±0.44mm in the skeletonization method group and
2.38±0.42mm in the semi-skeletonization method, p=0.991).
These results suggested that left internal thoracic artery could
be used longer by either 2 methods than by pedicled harvesting
technique, however skeletonization method caused less spasm during
graft harvesting than the semi-skeletonization method.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 329 -332 (2003)
|Perioperative Change of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Relation to the Surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm|
|Perioperative changes of atrial
natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
in surgically treated cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
were investigated. A retrospective review of 34 patients of AAA
who underwent operation was carried out. All patients received
cardiac catheterization before the AAA operation. ANP and BNP
were measured on the preoperative day, postoperative day (POD)
1 and POD2, respectively. Twenty-two cases were complicated by
ischemic heart disease (IHD). In all cases of AAA, ANP and BNP
increased significantly at POD1 and POD2. The levels of ANP and
BNP in the AAA with IHD group were significantly higher than
those in the AAA without IHD group at all points. These results
suggest that postoperative care for cardiac overload during the
AAA operation is especially needed for patients with IHD.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 333 -336 (2003)
|Treatment of Elderly Patients with Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta|
|Between December 1994 and December
2002, surgical repair of aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA)
was performed in 139 patients, 32 of whom had ruptured AAA. Thirty-nine
patients were 80 years old or older (O) and 100 patients were
younger (Y) than 80. The ratio between ruptured and unruptured
AAA was significantly higher among older patients（O: 41.0% versus
Y: 16.0%, p=0.002). Surgical mortality was identical in
those receiving elective repair (O: 0% versus Y: 0%) and similar
in those receiving repair following rupture (O: 13.3% versus
Y: 28.5%, p=0.314). A diagnosis of AAA had been made before
rupture in only 10 patients, whose survival rate was relatively
higher (100%) than that of patients without known AAA (66.7%).
Ten patients died of ruptured AAA without surgery. Four of them
had intractable cardiopulmonary arrest despite attempts at resuscitation.
Four other patients were debilitated due to other disease even
before rupture of AAA. Another 2 patients were diagnosed as ruptured
AAA at autopsy. In conclusion, elective surgical repair is safe
in elderly patients with AAA. The survival rate of elderly patients
following rupture of AAA is comparable to that of younger patients.
Some patients, however, should be excluded from aggressive treatment
because of associated conditions such as marked debilitation
prior to rupture or uncorrectable cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival.
Patient selection is a sensitive but important issue in the era
of society being composed of many elderly people.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 337 -342 (2003)
|Ruptured Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm|
|A 59-year-old man was admitted with
sudden onset of back pain and abdominal discomfort. There was
no history of pancreatitis, abdominal injury, or abdominal surgery.
Enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed retroperitoneal
hematoma behind the head of the pancreas, and emergency angiography
demonstrated retroperitoneal bleeding due to rupture of a superior
pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm. Embolization was tried unsuccessfully,
because of difficulty in selective cannulation of the vessel
feeding the aneurysm. Emergency laparotomy was performed. We
inserted a finger behind the pancreas via the lateral side of
the duodenum by Kocher's maneuver, then ligated the ruptured
portion of the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. We did not
reconstruct the artery because blood supply to the peripheral
tissue was good. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful,
and he was discharged from the hospital in good condition 1 month
after surgery. CT proved to be useful in revealing the voluminous
retroperitoneal hematoma, and angiography proved to be necessary
for the definitive diagnosis of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 343 -346 (2003)
|Successful Treatment with Percutaneous Catheter Drainage and Irrigation for Methycillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Graft Infection Following Abdominal Aneurysm Repair|
|We report 2 cases of successful
treatment by percutaneous catheter drainage and irrigation for
methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prosthetic
graft infection after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.
Case1 was a 71-year-old man in whom MRSA graft infection was
diagnosed on the basis of high fever and CT-guided taps of the
perigraft fluid 11 days after AAA repair, and a percutaneous
catheter was inserted into the perigraft space by the CT-guided
method. Case2 was a 77-year-old man in whom MRSA graft infection
was diagnosed because of high fever and purulent discharge from
the wound of retroperitoneal drainage 5 days after AAA repair.
A percutaneous catheter was placed into the retroperitoneal space
via an extraperitoneal route. In both cases, intermittent irrigation
by 0.5% Povidone-iodine solution and saline was performed as
well as systemic and local antibiotic administration. The graft
infection was well controlled and both patients were discharged
after 4 months. Percutaneous catheter drainage and irrigation
can be one of the choices for critically ill patients with graft
infection after AAA repair.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 347 -349 (2003)
|A Case of Valve Repair in Mitral Valve Regurgitation Associated with Acromegaly and a Review of the Literature during the Last 2 Decades|
|Cardiovascular manifestations of acromegaly include cardiomegaly and very often hypertension, coronary atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Primary valvular disease is less commonly observed. A 62-year-old woman had acromegaly associated with mitral regurgitation (MR) resulting from prolapse of the posterior mitral leaflet, which was successfully repaired. At the age of 57 years, the patient was admitted due to heart failure without valvular disease. Acromegaly was diagnosed and a pituitary tumor was removed surgically. At the age of 62, a heart murmur was found, and moderate to severe MR was diagnosed. MR was successfully corrected by quadrangular resection of the posterior leaflet, including the prolapsed portion, and prosthetic ring annuloplasty. Histological examination showed myxomatous degeneration. The patient recovered uneventfully. During the last 2 decades, only 21 surgical cases of valvular disease associated with acromegaly were reported in the literature; mitral valve lesions in 10 patients (all with regurgitation), aortic valve lesions in 10 patients (7 with regurgitation and 3 with stenosis), and one with combined lesions of mitral and aortic valves. Since histology did not show specific changes in many reports, it is still unclear whether valve lesions are caused by a high GH hormone level. Although mitral valve replacement was recommended in the 1990s due to the fragility of valvular rings and their apparatus, mitral repair was performed in 5 recent cases and no recurrence has been reported.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 350 -354 (2003)
|A Case of 1-Stage Replacement of the Ascending Aorta, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Revascularization of the Lower Extremities|
|An 86-year-old woman was transferred
to our hospital because of chest pain and left incomplete paralysis.
CT-scan revealed a dissecting aortic aneurysm (DeBakey type2)
6cm in diameter. Coronary angiography and aortography were perfomed
to assess the coronary artery disease and ASO, they showed occluded
LAD, 90% stenosis of CX and occluded left external iliac artery.
We planned a 1-stage operation. Coronary artery bypass grafting
with the beating heart was carried out prior to replacement of
the ascending aorta. Then we performed femoro-femoro bypass.
The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged
23 days after the operation.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 355 -357 (2003)
|A Case of Tracheoinnominate Artery Fistula That Required 2 Operations and Which Developed a Subcutaneous Abscess 2 Years after the Operations|
|The patient was an 18-year-old man
with congenital cerebral palsy who had undergone a tracheotomy
at the age of 12. He underwent 2 emergency operations for massive
endotracheal bleeding due to a tracheoinnominate artery fistula.
At the first operation, the tracheal and tracheoinnominate artery
fistulas were each closed directly, with median sternotomy. The
second operation was due to recurrence of bleeding on the 20th
postoperative day. The innominate artery was transected to avoid
recurrence of bleeding. We only used an autologous pericardium
but no artificial materials other than sutures, because of operative
field contamination. Although a subcutaneous abscess developed
at the operative wound 2 years after the operation, it was cured
by incisional drainage and administration of antibiotics. In
the case of tracheoinnominate artery fistula, it is impossible
to save life without surgical treatment. However, the surgery
involves a risk of repeated hemorrhaging and infections, resulting
in a very poor prognosis. In our case, transection should have
been performed at the first operation to avoid a recurrence of
bleeding. The surgical method, using an autologous pericardium
but no artificial materials, appeared to be effective in preventing
infections. The surgical method should be selected with careful
consideration to prevent repeated hemorrhaging and infection.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 358 -361 (2003)
|A Case of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Associated with Postoperative Paraplegia|
|We present a very rare case of abdominal
aortic aneurysm associated with paraplegia. A 68-year-old man
developed paraplegia following resection of a infrarenal abdominal
aortic aneurysm. The aorta was clamped just below the renal arteries.
In this case interruption of the radicular artery magna (RAM;
Adamkiewicz artery) might have caused serious ischemia of the
spinal cord. Spinal cord ischemia is a very rare and unpredictable
complication in surgery of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms
because the spinal cord is generally protected from irreversible
ischemia during infrarenal aortic occlusion by the presence of
the RAM which arises above the renal artery (Even if RAM interruption
might arise, the lower renal artery, and other radicular arteries
are usually present above the renal arteries). We feel that reducing
aortic cross-clamping time as short as possible and avoiding
intra- and postoperative hypotensive episodes to keep adequate
blood flow of collaterals seem to be the most important factors
to prevent spinal cord ischemia.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 362 -365(2003)
|Occlusion of the Left Coronary Artery Caused by Fusion of the Aortic Cusp to the Aortic Wall|
|A 75-year-old woman suffered from chest compression on effort. Detailed examinations showed aortic valve stenosis and unusual separation of the left coronary artery from the aorta. Surgical exposure revealed that the aortic valve was composed of 3 cusps. Two of 3 cusps were calcified, and another small cusp had fused to the aortic wall. Fusion of the cusp produced a cyst with a hole that was 1.5 mm in diameter. Excision of the cyst disclosed the normal orifice of the left coronary artery. The aortic valve was resected and replaced with an artificial valve. Her postoperative course was uneventful, without any angina pectoris.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 366 -369 (2003)
|A Case of Obturator Foramen Bypass for Infected Femoral Artery after Use of an Arterial Closure Device|
|A 52-year-old man with a 10-year
history of severe diabetes was referred to our hospital with
hemorrhage from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected
femoral artery following the use of an arterial closure device
(Prostar XL: Perclosure, Co., Ltd., Redwood, CA, USA). At surgery,
the common femoral artery showed a circular area of disintegration,
9 mm in diameter, due to massive infection. One month after femoral
angioplasty with a saphenous vein patch, re-hemorrhage occurred
as a result of uncontrollable infection. Next, an obturator foramen
(OF) bypass was performed and the infected femoral artery was
removed. Two months after OF bypass, the wound healed and the
patient was well. We conclude that OF bypass is a satisfactory
method of treatment for compromised patients with an infected
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 370 -373 (2003)
|A Case of Traumatic Injury to the Thoracic Descending Aorta Complicated with Intracerebral Hemorrhage|
|A semicomatose 53-year-old woman who had been injured in an automobile accident was admitted. Injury to the thoracic descending aorta was suspected because of widening of the upper mediastinum on a chest X-ray film and confirmed by chest contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). We postponed surgical treatment because brain CT showed traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. She was maintained in an intensive care unit and had pharmacological treatment and medical support. Two days later, brain CT showed that the intracerebral hematoma was a stable and inactive lesion, so she underwent aortic repair 3days after the accident. Left thoracotomy was performed and an artificial vascular prosthesis was interposed under hypothermic circulatory arrest (open proximal method). The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 44 days after the operation. Hypothermic circulatory arrest may be a valuable adjunct for traumatic injury of the thoracic aorta at risk for impending rupture.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 374 -377 (2003)
|A Surgically Treated Case of Acute Type A Dissection Subsequent to Chronic Dissection with 3-Channeled Descending Aorta Dissection|
|A 41-year-old woman was admitted suffering from chest pain and dyspnea. We performed an emergency operation under a diagnosis of type A acute aortic dissection combined with type B chronic 3-channeled dissection on CT scan. The ascending aorta was replaced with woven Dacron graft under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Atrial inflow for cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated only through the femoral artery because the right axillary artery was stenotic. Neither cystic medial necrosis nor aortitis were recognized in pathological examination of the ascending aorta. Postoperative recovery was smooth and uneventful. Three-channeled aortic dissection tends to enlarge the false lumen, and has a high risk of rupture compared with the more common 2-channeled aortic dissection, therefore careful follow-up is needed in this patient. When acute type A dissection is complicated with 3-channeled chronic dissection, it is important to preoperatively assess the route of visceral blood supply, and to carefully select the cannulation site of extracorporeal circulation to prevent malperfusion.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 378 -381 (2003)
|Aortic Valve Replacement in a 92-Year-Old Woman|
|A case of aortic valve replacement in a 92-year-old woman is reported. Severe aortic valve stenosis was pointed out when she suffered from congestive heart failure (CHF). After medical treatment for CHF, she complained of leg edema even with only mild exercise. Aortic valve replacement was performed, because her general condition and her left ventricular contraction on UCG were good. Her postoperative course was good except for a transient rapid atrial fibrillation. We think that surgery should not be withheld on the basis of age alone.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 32: 382 -384 (2003)