|Satoshi Sugimoto＊||Tomoyoshi Yamashita＊||Akira Adachi＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Obihiro Kosei Hospital＊, Obihiro, Japan）
Background: Pericardial effusion is a common finding with a wide spectrum of etiologies. Surgical management is recommended for a patient with intractable pericardial effusion which is resistant to medical treatment and causes cardiac tamponade. Various surgical approaches for pericardial effusion have been reported, for example thoracotomy, open abdominal surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery, laparoscopic surgery, and subxiphoid approach. Objectives: We report the results of pericardial-peritoneal window using a subxiphoid approach under local anesthesia for refractory pericardial effusions. Methods: Five patients who underwent pericardial-peritoneal window surgery for refractory pericardial effusion between April 2011 to June 2022 were included in this study. The age of the patients was 61±14 years, and one （20%） was male. The comorbidities were four cases of autoimmune disease （two cases of scleroderma, one case of systemic lupus erythematosus, and one case of IgG4-related disease） （80%） and two cases of follicular lymphoma （40%）. For comorbidities, steroids were administered in 2 patients （40%） and immunosuppressive drugs in 4 patients （80%）. Colchicine was administered in 3 patients （60%） to treat pericardial effusions. Pericardiocentesis had been performed in 4 patients （80%） prior to surgery. Under local anesthesia in the supine position, a small incision was made at lower end of the sternum and the xiphoid process was resected. A pericardial-peritoneal window of more than 40 mm in diameter was created. In the past, only the diaphragmatic window was opened, but recently the diaphragmatic window and the anterior aspect of the pericardial sac membrane have been resected continuously to open the pericardial sac widely. Results: The operative time was 36±15 min. One complication was postoperative hemorrhage. There were no operative deaths or hospital deaths. Preoperative colchicine was discontinued in all patients after surgery. The mean postoperative follow-up was 2.7 years （0.5-5.9）, and no reaccumulation of pericardial effusion was observed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The pericardial-peritoneal window with a subxiphoid approach can be safely performed under local anesthesia, and if the window is created large enough, it could be a minimally invasive and effective treatment for refractory pericardial effusions.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 293-298（2023）
Keywords：refractory pericardial effusion; pericardial-peritoneal window; subxiphoid approach; local anesthesia
|Shinji Mizuta＊||Keisei Koizumi＊||Shintaro Nakajima＊|
|Yousuke Miyamoto＊||Junpei Yamamoto＊||Kan Kaneko＊|
(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ichinomiyanishi Hospital＊, Ichinomiya, Japan)
Background: The “work style reform of physicians” is due to come into effect in April 2024. Cardiovascular surgery involves many life-saving surgeries after hours, and it is expected to be difficult to achieve the upper limit （level A） of 960 h per year and less than 100 h per month for overtime work. In 2021, there were five full-time cardiovascular surgeons, four of whom were responsible for performing emergency surgery for acute aortic dissection in our facility. The ability to provide emergency surgical care with any two-person combination increases the flexibility of staffing for routine surgery or after-hours on-call. The working environment and surgical outcomes of acute aortic dissection under this system are reported, and changes in work style in cardiovascular surgery are discussed. Methods: The surgical outcomes of 39 cases of acute aortic dissection requiring emergency open heart surgery at this hospital during the one-year period from January to December 2021 were investigated. The number of cases （and first assistants） performed by five full-time surgeons were 7（13）, 9（6）, 12（3）, 11（7） and 0（10）, respectively. In addition, there were 8 cases of acute aortic dissection requiring urgent stent graft treatment during the same period. The emergency response rate for emergency patients （including those other than acute aortic dissection） was 100% during the same period. Results: The age was 69 years （median）, 48.7% were female, 92.3% were Stanford type A, of which 22.2% were DeBakey type II. Shock vital 20.5%, malperfusion 30.8%．The surgical procedures included TAR in 19 cases, PAR in 8 cases, HAR in 12 cases （including 2 Bentall）. Concomitant operations were AVR in 5 cases, CABG in 2 cases, TEVAR in 1 case, lower limb arterioplasty in 2 cases and right hemispherectomy in 1 case. Operating time 400 min （median）, extracorporeal circulation time 194 min （median）, cardiac arrest 108 min （median）, selective cerebral perfusion time 125 min （median）, lower body circulation arrest 46 min （median）. Hospital mortality 7.7%, stroke 12.8%, delayed paraparesis 2.6%. Ventilation time was 1 day （median）, hospital stay 23 days （median）, 64.1% were discharged at home. Working Environments: 12-13 on-calls per month. Maximum yearly overtime work is 480.5 h with full overtime pay. Exemptions from working after night shift were also possible. Conclusions: The surgical outcomes of acute aortic dissection at our hospital were acceptable. Not having a fixed surgeon enabled a flexible emergency response, and increased the flexibility of staffing for routine surgery and on-call, and was considered to enable both a change in working style and surgical safety while meeting the needs of the community.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 299-304（2023）
Keywords：work style reform; 960 h; acute aortic dissection; task shifting
|Kyo Hayama＊||Shuichi Shiraishi＊||Maya Watanabe＊|
|Ai Sugimoto＊||Masanori Tsuchida＊|
(Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences＊, Niigata, Japan)
The case is an infant referred to the mother after a fetal ultrasound at 22 gestational weeks revealed a left renal cyst and congenital heart disease. He was born at 36 weeks and five days, weighing 2,282 g, with Apgar 8/8 points, and diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot, absent pulmonary valve, pulmonary regurgitation, persistent left superior vena cava, right aortic arch, and cervical arch. He was placed on ventilatory management immediately after birth, but was extubated at age nine days. On approximately day 26, since the SpO2 markedly decreased and bronchoscopy showed only mild stenosis, we concluded that decreased pulmonary blood flow mainly caused cyanosis. Because of the low body weight and presence of a single coronary artery, we decided to proceed with a palliative surgery. However, since the patient had a cervical arch and the usual Blalock-Taussig shunt was anatomically difficult, we performed a central shunt＋main pulmonary artery ligation on day 49. Cyanosis improved and his respiratory condition was stable, but contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a tendency for left pulmonary artery enlargement and left main bronchus compression. On day 87, the Rastelli procedure＋bilateral pulmonary artery plication was performed because worsening airway symptoms were anticipated. The patient’s respiratory condition stabilized postoperatively, and he was extubated 10 days postoperatively. On day 136, the patient was discharged with a home high-flow nasal cannula.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 305-309（2023）
Keywords：tetralogy of Fallot; absent pulmonary valve; cervical arch; single coronary artery; a low birth weight infant
|Kay Maeda＊||Tomoyuki Suzuki＊||Konosuke Sasaki＊|
|Shuhei Tanaka＊＊||Tomohiro Ito＊＊||Tomoko Tomioka＊＊|
|Kiichiro Kumagai＊||Yoshikatsu Saiki＊|
(Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine＊, Sendai, Japan, and Department of Cardiology, South Miyagi Medical Center＊＊, Sendai, Japan)
A 70-year-old female with a pulmonary embolism was admitted to a local hospital. On admission, transthoracic echocardiography detected a mobile cardiac tumor on the aortic valve. After medical treatment for a pulmonary embolism, she was slated for a resection of the tumor in our hospital. Although preoperative examinations showed an isolated tumor attached to the non-coronary cusp without valve dysfunction, meticulous intraoperative inspection revealed multiple fine villous tumors located in the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve. Being immersed in saline solution, these tumors had resembled a distinctive sea anemone-like appearance. These fine tumors could not be detected with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography even in a retrospective manner. We eventually performed aortic valve replacement. The tumors of the two cusps were pathologically diagnosed as papillary fibroelastoma. Of note, a macroscopically undetected tumor was identified in the right coronary cusp by histopathological evaluation. Careful intraoperative observation is essential for surgical decision and patient’s prognosis. It is also considered that latent tumor might be concealed even in seemingly normal adjacent cusps in a case with multiple papillary fibroelastomas.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 310-313（2023）
Keywords：multiple papillary fibroelastomas; cardiac tumor; echocardiography; aortic valve replacement
|Masafumi Kudo＊||Tsuyoshi Kataoka＊||Kotaro Shiraga＊|
(Department of Cardiac Surgery, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center＊, Kyoto, Japan)
An 82-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of fever and disequilibrium. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed acute multiple cerebral infarctions with multiple small intracerebral hemorrhages. The laboratory tests revealed an elevated inflammatory response, and two separate sets of blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus oralis. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a single site of vegetation （13×11 mm） of the mitral anterior annulus. The vegetation apparently did not involve the intervalvular fibrous body. Moderate mitral regurgitation and mild to moderate aortic regurgitation were detected. Early surgical intervention was considered, but there was a high risk of operative mortality. We thus initially performed only medical treatment. Transesophageal echocardiography was again performed 12 days after his admission and revealed vegetation of the mitral anterior annulus progressing to the aortic annulus via the intervalvular fibrous body. It seemed to be difficult to control this progressive infective endocarditis with medical treatment. We therefore performed a semi-urgent operation. With an incision into the right-side left atrium, we identified the vegetation of the center of the mitral anterior leaflet progressing to the mitral anterior annulus. Subsequently, we added an aortotomy with Manouguian’s incision. We were able to remove all vegetation that was present in the aortic annulus, intervalvular fibrous body, and mitral annulus with a Commando operation. Finally, we performed double valve replacement with reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body and other lost cardiac structures using one boat-shaped bovine pericardial patch. He was discharged to home 34 days after surgery with no neurological complications and no recurrence of infective endocarditis. He also had no recurrence of infective endocarditis and no paravalvular leakage on either prosthetic valve at one year after the surgery.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 314-319（2023）
Keywords：Commando operation; active infective endocarditis; boat-shaped bovine pericardial patch; intervalvular fibrous body
|Ryo Okusako＊||Risa Inoue＊||Seimei Go＊|
|Syogo Emura＊||Keijiro Katayama＊||Taiichi Takasaki＊|
(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hiroshima University Hospital＊, Hiroshima, Japan, and Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Science, Hiroshima University＊＊, Hiroshima, Japan)
A 46-year-old man had a 3-week history of persistent cough. Chest radiography showed a mass in the left pulmonary hilum and contrast-enhanced computed tomography （CT） showed an infiltrative mass extending from the main pulmonary trunk to the left hilar region into the lung. He was referred to our hospital for multidisciplinary treatments. Echocardiography showed that the proximal side of the tumor reached the pulmonary valve. CT revealed that the heterogeneous low-density tumor extended from the main pulmonary trunk to the left and right pulmonary arteries, and the left side of the tumor extended beyond the left pulmonary hilum into the left lung. A mass shadow of 54 mm in length was also seen in the lower lobe of the left lung along the pulmonary artery. Although the left bronchus was compressed by the tumor, there was no obvious intratracheal invasion. Direct invasion to the descending thoracic aorta was suspected. He underwent the resection of the main pulmonary trunk and the left pulmonary artery along with the tumor concomitant with total left pneumonectomy. Reconstruction of the pulmonary artery and right ventricular outflow tract were performed as follows: The right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed by using a semilunar shaped bovine pericardial patch. The pulmonary artery was replaced by using a composite graft with a Dacron tube graft and an aortic bio-prosthesis. He was discharged on the 22nd postoperative day. The pathological diagnosis of the tumor was pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma. Although there are various reconstruction methods for pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma depending on the affected site, reconstruction of the pulmonary artery and the right ventricular outflow tract by using a composite graft are considered to be a useful method.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 320-324（2023)
Keywords：pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma; composite graft; right ventricular outflow tract
|Yuichiro Hamada＊||Ryuta Tai＊＊||Soichiro Hirose＊|
|Moe Morikochi＊＊||Yoshihiko Kuinose＊＊||Teppei Toya＊＊|
|Yusuke Kinugasa＊＊||Hideki Teshima＊＊||Hiroyuki Irie＊＊|
(Department of Clinical Training＊, and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery＊＊, Chikamori Hospital, Kochi, Japan)
Here, we report a rare case in which the inlet pressure of the oxygenator increased three times in two operations, even though two different types of oxygenators were used. A 45-year-old man underwent mitral valve repair owing to posterior cusp （P2） prolapse. Immediately after median sternotomy, the patient went into anaphylactic shock. We immediately started cardio-pulmonary bypass. The inlet pressure in company A’s oxygenator increased, and the oxygenator was immediately replaced with the same type of oxygenator. However, the same occurred, and the oxygenator was exchanged for one made by company B. Thereafter, the operation was completed without further oxygenator problems.Fifty-five days after the initial surgery, a second operation was performed to repair a pseudoaneurysm at the root vent cannulation site. After induction of general anesthesia, the patient went into anaphylactic shock, as before, but circulation was maintained. Cardio-pulmonary bypass was started using company B’s oxygenator, as it gave no problems at the previous surgery. However, it had to be exchanged owing to inlet pressure elevation. Thereafter, cardio-pulmonary bypass was maintained without pressure elevation, and the operation was completed. The reasons for the inlet pressure elevations are unclear.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 325-329（2023）
Keywords：oxygenator; pressure elevation; exchange of oxygenator; cardio-pulmonary bypass
|Kazuhiro Ota＊||Hirofumi Midorikawa＊||Kyohei Ueno＊|
|Gaku Takinami＊||Kentaro Yuda＊||Megumu Kanno＊|
(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Southern Tohoku General Hospital＊, Koriyama, Japan)
We report on a case of a distal aortic arch aneurysm with severe shaggy aorta treated by two-stage hybrid surgery without complications. The patient was a 67-year-old man. The thoracic aortic aneurysm was identified on computed tomography imaging by his treating physician during routine follow-up for lung cancer. The patient was referred to our hospital for further investigation and treatment. The aneurysm had a maximum diameter of 68 mm with severe shaggy aorta. Based on these findings, the risk of cerebral infarction and spinal cord ischemia was considered very high. The patient underwent total arch replacement with elephant trunk, using a brain isolation technique for this initial surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful and thoracic endovascular aortic repair（TEVAR） was performed 26 days after the initial surgery. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 38, without complications.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 330-334（2023）
Keywords：thoracic aortic aneurysm; shaggy aorta; aortic arch replacement; brain isolation technique; TEVAR
|Masato Fusegawa＊||Naritomo Nishioka＊||Keita Sasaki＊|
|Shuhei Miura＊||Takahiko Masuda＊||Ryushi Maruyama＊|
|Akira Yamada＊||Yoshihiko Kurimoto＊||Shuichi Naraoka＊|
（Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Teine Keijinkai Hospital＊, Sapporo, Japan）
In acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, except for some thrombosed false-lumen types, graft replacement is a standard treatment. On the other hand, thoracic endovascular aortic repair （TEVAR） might be considered for high-risk patients with retrograde type A aortic dissection when entry is in the descending aorta, although its efficacy in a case of an extensive thrombosed false lumen without obvious entry is unknown. We report a case of successful zone 3 TEVAR using RelayPro NBS for Stanford type A aortic dissection with a localized CT-enhanced false lumen in the proximal descending aorta. An 83-year-old woman was admitted for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection with a thrombosed false lumen of the ascending thoracic aorta. She was initially treated conservatively because of being a high-risk patient for open surgery. One week after hospitalization, the ascending aorta diameter increased and the false lumen in the proximal descending aorta grew sporadically in a CT image. We suspected that the ascending aorta was enlarged due to a partially patent false lumen of the descending thoracic aorta, and performed zone 3 TEVAR using RelayPro NBS to close a possible entry in the proximal descending aorta even though there was no obvious entry. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged 15 days after TEVAR. Shrinkage of the false lumen in the ascending aorta was observed in CT images two months after TEVAR.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 335-339（2023）
Keywords：acute Stanford type A aortic dissection；TEVAR；RelayPro NBS
|Yusuke Seki＊||Yutaka Sakakibara＊||Kimitake Hirase＊|
|Yukari Terashita＊||Takehiko Matsuo＊||Kazunobu Nishimura＊|
(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital＊, Takamatsu, Japan)
This is a case of an 81-year-old male who underwent stent-graft （SG） placement for type B aortic dissection at the age of 79. Two and a half years after the surgery, he was diagnosed with SG infection. Although he was scheduled for SG removal and the in-situ replacement of the descending aorta, he had difficulty maintaining oxygenation under single lung ventilation and detaching the severe adhesion of the aneurysm to the lung; therefore, only the aneurysm sac was opened, and abscess drainage was performed. The continuous irrigation and drainage of the aneurysm sac were performed, but the infection did not improve. On the 6th day after the surgery, the aortic aneurysm in the lung adhesion area was left untreated, and an extra-anatomical bypass was performed from the distal aortic arch to the anterior position of the pulmonary hilum, anastomosing with the abdominal aorta. All SGs were removed, the abscess and intima of the aortic aneurysm were extensively excised, and the remaining cavity was filled with omentum. The infection rapidly improved after the surgery, and he was discharged on the 52nd day after admission. Fortunately, the infection did not recur for 2 years since the surgery. This procedure is useful as an option for surgical reconstruction for stent graft infection for which in-situ descending aorta replacement is difficult.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 340-344（2023）
Keywords：stent-graft infection; extra-anatomical bypass; thoracic endovascular aortic repair
|Kazunori Sakaguchi＊||So Izumi＊||Reiko Kanno＊|
|Mayo Kondo＊||Takuro Tsukube＊|
（Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Kobe Hospital and Hyogo Emergency Medical Center＊, Kobe, Japan）
A 79-year-old woman with left hemiplegia and loss of consciousness was transferred to a previous hospital. She underwent a CT-scan of the aorta and CT-perfusion of the brain and was diagnosed with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection complicated with cerebral malperfusion with narrowing of the right carotid artery region. She was transferred to our hospital and underwent emergency ascending aorta replacement. Preoperative CT perfusion findings predicted improvement of neurological symptoms after aortic repair, and she had no neurological complications postoperatively.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 345-348（2023）
Keywords：acute aortic dissection；Stanford type A；cerebral malperfusion；CT perfusion
|Hironori Baba＊||Ayaka Iwasaki＊||Eisaku Nakamura＊|
(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Miyazaki Prefectural Miyazaki Hospital＊, Miyazaki, Japan)
A 52-year-old man presented himself to his family doctor for uremia associated with prerenal acute renal failure. A 12 Fr vascular access catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein for emergency dialysis. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography （CT） scan revealed that the catheter had penetrated the right internal jugular vein, perforated the right subclavian artery, and reached the ascending aorta. Under general anesthesia, we completed the procedure with a pull-through technique between the bilateral brachial arteries. A vascular occlusion balloon was inserted from the left brachial artery and a GORE VIABAHN stent graft was inserted from the right brachial artery. The postoperative course was good and he has been free from hemorrhagic episodes. He was transferred to the referring hospital on postoperative day 2.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 349-352（2023）
Keywords：Iatrogenic subclavian artery injury; pull-through technique; endovascular repair
|Akihiko Usui1)||Hideyuki Shimizu2)||Kenji Minatoya3)|
|Kenji Okada4)||Norihiko Shiiya5)||Noboru Motomura6)|
(Cardiovascular Surgery, Fujita Health University, Okazaki Medical Center1), Okazaki, Japan, Cardiovascular Surgery, Keio University2), Tokyo, Japan, Cardiovascular Surgery, Kyoto University3), Kyoto, Japan, Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe University4), Kobe, Japan, First Department of Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine5), Hamamatsu, Japan, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Toho University Sakura Medical Center6), Sakura, Japan, and Cardiovascular Surgery, Fukushima Medical University7), Fukushima, Japan)
Background: A review committee for unapproved and off-label drugs with high medical needs determined that the indication of fibrinogen concentrate for cardiovascular surgery would be publicly acceptable in 2021. However, the Japanese Society of Cardiovascular Surgery is required the conduct of several surveys demonstrating that fibrinogen concentrate can be used properly in medical settings. A questionnaire concerning the use of fibrinogen concentrate in cardiovascular surgery was one such required survey. Methods: A questionnaire concerning the use of fibrinogen concentrate was conducted in December 2021 at 551 certified training facilities of the Japanese Board of Cardiovascular Surgery, and responses were received from 375 facilities （68%）. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate was used in 98 centers （26%）. Aortic surgery （thoracic/thoracoabdominal） （50%） and cardiac redo surgery （24%） were eligible common surgeries requiring fibrinogen concentrate, and the intraoperative measurement of fibrinogen levels was performed in 77% of centers. The triggers for the use of fibrinogen concentrate were a fibrinogen level ＜150 mg/dl in 30%, ＜100 mg/dl in 20% and massive bleeding tendency in 40%. Of note, only 39 facilities （10%） were able to prepare cryoprecipitate in-hospital, and 34 centers （9%） used it for cardiovascular surgery. One hundred and seven centers （29%） planned to apply for facility accreditation for the use of fibrinogen concentrate, and 40 facilities （10%） answered that they would decide based on the situation. The expected number of annual cases in which fibrinogen concentrate would be used for cardiovascular surgery reached 4,860 cases: ＜10 cases in 52 centers, 10–19 cases in 50 centers, 20–49 cases in 31 centers, 50–99 cases in 12 centers and ≥100 cases in 2 centers. Conclusion: We conducted a questionnaire on the use of fibrinogen concentrate. Intraoperative fibrinogen level measurement was performed at approximately 80% of institutions, and the annual number of cases likely to use fibrinogen concentrate was predicted to reach about 5,000 cases. However, only 10% of centers used cryoprecipitates prepared in-hospital.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52: 353-360 （2023）
Keywords：fibrinogen; survey of the use; cryoprecipitates
(Department of Cardiac Surgery, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital＊, Utsunomiya, Japan)
It is the most important for young cardiovascular surgeon that ensure the number of cases to obtain and renew the specialties qualifications. Regional disparities such as concentration of facilities in urban areas and shortage of physicians in rural areas, may be affecting the lack of cases. I compared the population of each medical region with the number of cardiac surgery training facilities to examine regional disparities in cardiovascular surgery. As one way to solve the regional disparity problem, I make a suggestion to decentralize young doctors from urban areas to rural areas.
Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 52(5): U1-U6 (2023)
Keywords：regional disparity; decentralization; consolidation; career plan of young cardiovascular surgeon